• Accra Central.
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  • info@cotvet.org

CBT Development Process

STAGE 1: Conduct Needs Assessment

Market Research

The market research can be formal or informal; it involves the identification of employers in the area and the use of some type of survey (phone or mail) to determine the status of employment needs. This will help the developers to prepare programmes that are needed by employers.

STAGE 2: Establish Industry/Occupational Needs (Occupational Standards Generation).

Establish competences required of learners to reflect appropriate

  1. Cognitive domain (knowledge)
  2. Affective domain (attitude, values)
  3. Psychomotor domain (practical skills)

Validation of Occupational Standards

  1. Establish and train Validation Team
  2. Conduct purposive sampling
  3. Confirm Occupational Standards generated
  4. Write report

STAGE 3: Translate Industry/Occupational Needs into Education and Training Programmes.

Learning Unit Specification

The Learning Unit Specification is divided into two main parts:

Statement of Standards

The statement of standards defines the learning outcomes and aspects of achievement, which ensure that a learner has demonstrated the necessary skills and knowledge. The content is mandatory, which means that the learner has to be able to satisfy every requirement of each part of the standards.

The following are the areas to be covered by the statement of standards:

  1. Reference number
  2. Unit title
  3. Date
  4. Level statement
  5. Credit value
  6. Access statement
  7. Unit introduction
  8. Learning outcomes
  9. Performance criteria
  10. Range statement
  11. Evidence requirements

STAGE 4: Develop Learning Material

Develop Content of the Learning Material based on Unit Specifications

  1. Establish content of learning material
  2. Writing should make learning more interactive
  3. Establish self assessment instruments for learners
  4. Establish peer assessment/appraisal instruments for learners
  5. Validate unit specification and learning materials

STAGE 5: Design and Develop Assessment Framework

Process of designing and developing CBT Assessment Framework

The trend in CBT assessment has two important concepts that have to guide all assessment processes and practices. These are:

    1. A learning outcome (based on occupational standards) that describes what (knowledge, information, skills, attitudes and values) that learners will know and be able to do at the end of the learning experience
    2. An assessment standard (based on occupational standards) that describes the level at which learners should demonstrate achievement of the learning outcomes and ways (depth and breadth) of demonstrating their achievement

The processes and practices above should lead to the:

  1. Establishment of clear and transparent performance indicators
  2. Establishment of an assessment items bank

STAGE 6: Develop Capacity of Facilitators and Assessors

Types of Approaches to Facilitating

There are two main approaches to teaching: teacher-centred and learner-centred. In the teacher-centred (also referred to as direct instruction) approach, the teacher has control over what is taught and how the learners are given the information they have to learn. A lecture is an example of a direct instruction approach.

In the learner-centred approach (also called discovery approach) more emphasis is placed on the learner's role in the learning process. In this approach, the teacher still sets the agenda of what is to be learned but has less control over what and how learners learn.

The teacher here becomes more of a facilitator of learning than a "channel" through which all knowledge and information must flow. The learner acquires knowledge more through their own individual or group investigations.

STAGE 7: Induct Staff and Learners

The purpose of Induction Programmes is to offer insight to students and College staff in the implementation of CBT and the advantages of offering it. CBT programmes are designed to:

  1. Offer a broad range of skills and knowledge relevant to the industry
  2. Assist learners in making an informed career choice for further education and training and or (self) employment
  3. Provide a national recognised qualification for the learner who would wish to enter a growing and dynamic sector of industry
  4. Broaden the range of skills by selection of elective units in keeping with their personal and social interests
  5. Help learner to integrate the different skills and knowledge acquired in a project
  6. Assist learner to experience the world of work and develop the appropriate values and attitudes through the work placement part of the programmes
  7. Develop the problem solving skills of the learner by promoting a systematic and imaginative approach
  8. Develop the key skills of the learner with particular reference to their application in the selected industry.

STAGE 8: Design and Develop Quality Assurance and Evaluation Instruments.

The following shall be done:

  1. Establish Internal and External Verifications Guidelines
  2. Establish Systems verification guidelines
  3. Establish Appeals Procedures
  4. Establish Customer Complaints and Feedback Guidelines
  5. Establish Appraisal Guidelines
  6. Establish Evaluation Guidelines (for future policy directive)
  7. Assessment Blue Print
  8. Assessment (Formative and Summative Directives)

STAGE 9: Establish and Develop Capacity of Internal and External Verifiers

Establish and Develop Capacity of Internal/External Verifiers

The following should be done:

  1. Establish and train Internal Verifiers in Internal Verification Procedures
  2. Establish and train External Verifiers in External Verification Procedures

STAGE 10: Establish and Develop Capacity of Systems Verifiers and Evaluators

The Role of System Verifiers and Evaluators

System verifiers visit centres regularly to ensure that the system required for supporting the delivery of qualification are operating effectively


  1. Provide guidance and advice to centres on the development of internal quality assurance system
  2. Act as a source of expertise on assessment issues
  3. Carry out approval visits to new centres
  4. Maintain an overview of the delivery of qualifications to centres